PCR is known as a polymerase chain reaction. This is a vastly adopted method across the world and a very significant one. This chain reaction is applied on DNA mainly. The PCR method promptly produces millions to billions of copies of a simple specific sample of DNA. DNA is a complex structure and needs precise transcription to test the nature of complexity.
These millions to billions of copies are analyzed to know about the nature or consistency of that specific disorder by which the host human is affected. It might sound a bit rough, but testing or analyzing any strands of DNA is hard to come by while analyzing. The synthesis part of DNA testing is as easy as any other chemical analysis.
The crucial factor lies beneath the decoding process. To test the anonymity of an external coding, millions after millions of strands are needed. It is a frequent nature of abruption that, the disorder does not necessarily attain at each strand and the quantity of disordered molecules might be present in micro status. To solidify the solution of the diagnosis, PCR or any other form of electrophoresis is taken into consideration.
PCR test is done in many diagnostic centers in Bangladesh. The test name and price is presented beneath this introductory part. The PCR test is a fundamental one in terms of genetics and genomics technology. Any ancient piece of DNA information or a sample from a living organism can be fundamentally decoded. This test is neither performed to detect the origin factors or to diagnose any disorder pattern.
There is another heavy impact use of PCR test, which is omics and bioinformatics. Both forms are used in high-end research. PCR test is the introductory part from which the basic data input of DNA pattern in encoded into the processing device or computer. The coding pattern can be viewed on a computer and from there synthesis activities are performed. Light rays dissect the genes into expected order and those are cultured into other organisms.
PCR Test Price In Bangladesh
Privately funded healthcare facilities charge the price of PCR test within 3,000 taka. If the person is doing it for travelling abroad, the test has 500 taka rebate and it stays down to 2,500. On the other hand, the government-owned medical centers conduct it within 2,000 taka where travelers can get it done within 1,500-1,600 taka.
Methodology of PCR Test
The sequence of DNA is amplified geometrically in this test. PCR involves DNA bases, DNA primers, buffer solution, enzymes, and thermal cycling. To start the process, a sample of a living organism (human) or other DNA sample is collected. Next, the sample is taken by the lab attendant and put in a specialized heating machine. This heat separates the double strand of DNA and make it a single stranded DNA.
The isolated single stranded DNA is heated again to expedite the enzyme activity known as Taq polymerase. This polymerase molecule adds DNA bases to the strand. The enzyme Taq polymerase twofold the basic single strand of DNA. The end product comes as two strands of DNA where both have the same molecular structure facing in opposite directions.
The same process is repeated again and again. The machine helps automate this process. The process is run continuously until sufficient DNA strands are made out of the original.
When the replication process is over, the specialized PCR machine can detect the existence of pathogens or foreign molecules. Though, few viruses’ can not be detected through the process as many use the RNA to begin their transcription. To obtain results on this aspect an RT PCR or reverse transcription of PCR test is taken. In this test, RNA is transcripted in reverse and a basic copy of DNA is made from that RNA. Though, the PCR test is much more accurate and precise. The meta-analysis of PCR is found to be more than 97% precise.
The testing types of PCR tests are differentiated as per the sample. The most common types are;
- Saliva: A short sample of saliva is taken into a test tube for a PCR test.
- Nasal Swab: A swabbing is done in order to take samples from the throat or nose.
- Blood: Certain crucial types of PCR tests need blood samples for analyses. The blood is collected from the vein.
- Nasal Mid Turbinate Swab: In this process, the sample is collected from the deep of the nostril.
Who Might Be Advised To Take A PCR Test
In several cases, the doctor can ask a patient to get a PCR test. Few very common symptoms or cases are listed underneath to give you an overview.
- Genetic abruption.
- Presence of cancer cells.
- Suspecting a virus attack.
- Symptoms of Corona Virus attack.
- Patient had been in close contact with someone who was tested COVID positive.
- Presence of infection.
- Any other recommendation for which the doctor has felt cautious.
How The Sample Is Collected
The sample collection procedure is fairly simple. At first, you would be asked to fill up medical forms and sign on consent paper if you have taken any health insurance before. The insurance company also has to let known prior to the test. It is also possible that any executive or officer would be present while the test is being undertaken. Upon your discretion, the test would be conducted. The sample collecting procedure is completed under a minute.
You would be sitting on a sitting arrangement and a swab would be used to take liquid saliva or sample either from your mouth or nostrils. The liquid mixed with the swab would be tested in the specialized PCT testing machine.
If the nature of the disease is complex and needs reverse transcription to detect, a serological sample might be required. In the case of complex diseases like COVID or SARS, only a saliva sample is not good enough. A blood sample provides a more accurate PCR result and an additional option to test the reverse transcription process of the RNA.